Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Linux Terminal Commands For Beginners

If you got fed up with changing themes, backgrounds, desktop effects etc.. you may now move on to the Linux terminal where you could have a plenty of fun. Some of the basic commands for you to get into the terminal are given below.


sudo
Execute each command as root, which is safer than actually switching into root via "su".
ifconfig
Displays the network card connection/configuration.
sudo apt-get install PackageName
Will install the whatever "PackageName" I typed and the dependancy files.
sudo shutdown -h now
Shuts down my Ubuntu and powers it off right away.
&&
Command to complete more that one action. For example:
sudo make && make install
Which runs the "make" script and then installs the "made" package.
ping 10.0.1.1
Sends test packets to whatever IP you type in, to help troubleshoot network connections.
apt-get moo
Just to look smart! ;) Try it!
cat /etc/issue
Displays the current Ubuntu version.
wget http://syserr.com/stuff/madwifi-cvs-20051025.tar.gz
Will download the file from any URL you enter after "wget"
tar -zxfv madwifi-cvs-20051025.tar.gz
Will uncompress the downloaded file
z means "Gunzip(uncompress) it before extracting, used on file ending in .tar.gz or .tgz"
x means "Extract the contents of the TAR file"
f means "Filename to follow"
v means "Verbose - display contents as it is tarring or extracting"
chmod +x install.sh
Command that says "Make the script file install.sh executable". I sometimes run into this after using wget and trying to run installer scripts.
sudo apt-get autoclean
Removes partial packages.
sudo cp /home/roger/backups/bk03072008.tar.gz /var/www/downloads
Copies a file from one directory to another directory. (in this case the file bk03072008.tar.gz was copied to the /var/www/downloads directory).
If you don't want to copy but move the file, change cp to mv.
find . -name "*.odt"
When looking for OpenOffice documents (in the current directory and all it's subdirectories) or find ./roger -name network_notes.odt when I know the exact name of the file.
..
Move up one level in the directory structure.
iwlist scan
Dislay wireless networks that are in range.
mkisofs -V LABEL -r dir | gzip > backups.iso.gz
Makes a CD image of the backup directory contents
cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast
Quick command to erase a CDRW
history -c
In a multiuser environment, it is sometimes not good to leave history. Of course you can just "exit" to leave the terminal.
arch
Displays the processor architecture so I know if I should download i386, i686 based application pakages.
whereis something
Displays where "something" is stored.

2 comments:

Anonymous said...

very helpful

Dan Collyer said...

Great post I need all the help I can get. I was really confused when I first started using Ubuntu as I was used to windows commands. I gathered a heap of terminal commands on my blog Ubuntu dan. I hope they help
http://www.ubuntudan.com/2010/07/beginners-guide-to-ubuntu-terminal.html

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